Knowledge Building Summer Institute 2012
Building Cultural Capacity for Innovation

Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology (IKIT)

August 7-10, 2012 – Toronto, Ontario, Canada


Workshop (2990) - Understanding and Using Knowledge ForumÕs Analytic Tools. Donald Neil Philip, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada.

Knowledge Forum has an evolving built-in Suite of Analytic Tools. These tools allow teachers and students to analyze their work in ways that have not been possible before. The purpose of this workshop is to present a draft manual of the current analytic tools suite. The manual is designed to help knowledge builders understand how to get access to, start up, and use the current analytic tools suite. The workshop will begin with a presentation of the manual, and then will proceed to a discussion with the participants of what should be added, removed, or changed in order to make the manual more useful.

Workshop (2994) - Visit to the iDAPT Research Centre of the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. Donald Neil Philip, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada.

One of the core ideas for knowledge building classes is that the students should work on real ideas/authentic problems. The iDAPT Research Centre of the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (http://www.torontorehab.com/Research/Facilities.aspx) presents a unique opportunity for teachers and students to see a real research lab in operation, and to use iDAPTÕs research challenges as a source of real ideas/authentic problems for knowledge building.

iDAPT (Intelligent Design, Adaptation, Participation, and Technology) works mostly on the study of problems of mobility that result from illness, age, or injury. Although we do basic research, much of it can be translated into assistive devices that can enhance the lives of persons with mobility problems. Many of the problems are at a cognitive level that quite young children can understand (e.g., older people often have arthritis and might injure themselves falling down stairs; how can we help prevent this?) Many of these problems also can be extended into more advanced topics, meaning that the same problems can be approached at the elementary, secondary, or university levels of understanding.

The workshop will start off from OISE, and travel by subway to the nearby Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. We will tour the iDAPT labs, and discuss the science outreach program and how it can help knowledge building classes.

PAPER (2996) - Fostering Constructivist-Oriented Mathematical Beliefs through Knowledge-Building. Huang-Yao Hong, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.

This case study investigated the impact of engaging teacher-education students in knowledge building on their mathematical beliefs. In particular, an idea-centered instructional design was introduced to facilitate knowledge-building processes. Data analyses focused on (a) idea improvement process as documented in a Knowledge Forum database, and (b) a mathematical beliefs survey. Results showed that idea-centered knowledge building was able to help the participants develop more constructivist-oriented mathematical beliefs.

POSTER (2997) - Designs for Social and Systemic Innovation through Knowledge Building in Undergraduate Engineering Education. Yanning Yu, Glenn W. Ellis, Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA.

The US Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) sets a variety of technical and nontechnical outcomes for students of engineering programs. These outcomes include the ability to work collaboratively, to engage in life-long learning, and to understand social and professional responsibility. We believe that the twelve Knowledge Building principles can be an ideal guide to pedagogical innovations in engineering education that would effectively address those ABET outcomes, and engage students to learn deeply and act responsibly in complex real situations. To explore designs of a KB learning environment that fit in the context of undergraduate engineering education, we have formulated three guiding research questions: 

á  What kinds of themes would most effectively engage engineering students in a knowledge building discourse?

á  What are some features of a learning environment that facilitate sustained knowledge building and how to implement and support these features in an engineering course?

á  What are the best approaches for assessing the learning that takes place in KB?

To understand these questions, we designed an instructional prototype for a KB learning environment in an undergraduate engineering mechanics course. In this course we chose a tornado that took place in a nearby community as the KB theme. Students generated their own questions and developed their discourse on KF after touring the tornado sites and meeting with members of the community impacted by the tornado. The instructor facilitated the discourse by organizing regular face-to-face KB group meetings to initiate and sustain meta-discourse and by creating opportunities for cross-group collaborative learning. The instructor also adapted homework, laboratories, and in-class case studies in support of ideas emerged in the KB discourse.

We are currently analyzing the KB discourse in relation to the learning environment to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the current instructional design. Preliminary results show an impact of various features of the learning environment on the level of activity in KF, the breadth and depth of technical content being addressed in KF, and the organization of the KF workspace. In addition, we found spontaneous and deep engagement in Ethics/ Community related discussions. Students became involved in community forums related to the tornado; interviewed engineering experts; established views devoted to discussions around ethics; and included ethical and community concerns in all aspects of the discourse, such as affordability of tornado-resistant house designs.

The analysis of the current version of the discourse will lead to hypotheses about how instruction can be improved in the future.  We also hope to develop better assessment tools that measure the impact of KB on a studentÕs preparedness for developing interpretative understanding and lifelong learning.  Our ultimate goal is to design a new model for the teaching and learning of engineering with knowledge building principle-based innovations to prepare engineering graduates to succeed in the 21st century knowledge economy. 

PAPER (2998) - Argumentation in the Science Classroom. Jennifer Gonz‡lez, Fernando Diaz del Castillo, Gimnasio La Montana, Colombia.

Students need to know how new knowledge is generated and validated by scientists as well as the important theories, laws, and concepts of the different disciplines in order to understand science as a way of knowing. Students must also develop the abilities needed to construct and support scientific claims through argumentation and to evaluate or challenge the claims or arguments developed by others (Douglas and Victor, 2007).

One of the challenges of educational research is the design of instructional units and innovative strategies and their evaluation through case studies (JimŽnez and Bustamante D’az, 2003). In this perspective, the objectives of teaching science, such as the learning of concepts and models or the development of attitudes and skills, are part of the adoption of a scientific culture, transforming science class into a community where knowledge is used and produced.

This research seeks to contribute to the practice of communicative skills of written argumentation in cellular processes through three main functions: a communicative function that serves as a tool to teach, assess and make knowledge public; a social function that acts as a mediator of interpersonal relations, agreements and collaborative projects; and an epistemic function that serves as an intellectual tool for learning. It follows a teaching strategy where the arguments of students are analyzed according to ToulminÕs theory (1972), before and after an intervention.

POSTER (2999) – Building Knowledge: Theoretical model to analyze Knowledge Builders. Calixto GutiŽrrez-Braojos & Purificaci—n Salmer—n-V’lchez, University of Granada, Spain.

Knowledge Building is a framework for the continual revolution of knowledge problems necessary for the transformation, amelioration and progression of a community system. From this standpoint, the community needs knowledge builders that share a common general goal, i.e. to generate knowledge and products that go beyond the system limits of the community (e.g. Bereiter & Scardamalia, 2003). Thus, students need opportunities to be builders of complex problems, and for this reason the educational systemÕs role is to create enabling environments for building activity (e.g. Bereiter, 2002; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006). In this context, we designed a pedagogical model embedded in the Knowledge Building perspective in order to describe knowledge builders and improve their opportunities to be builders. This pedagogical model of knowledge building emerges from the analogy of scientific activity, i.e. how researchers learn and build individually and within their research groups, and then engage, build and create expansive knowledge in research communities focused on their specific field of study. This Model is based on three interrelated dimensions (environment, problems, and builder activity), each composed of different foci and levels of detail (for example, builder activity involves reciprocal interactions among the following foci: individual, face to face, and virtual community).

The aim of the study was to examine the unidirectional relationship between three foci in the activity dimension (individual, face-to-face, virtual community), in order to ascertain which focus contributes most to relevant builders for the learning community. Path analysis was applied to jointly analyze direct and indirect effects among the variables of each focus.

The participants were 73 psychology undergraduates (71.2% females, 28.8% males) from the Universidad de Granada (University of Granada, SPAIN). They were enrolled in an educational research course as part of a five-year Pedagogy degree programme.

Several questionnaires were administered to compile information about the individual and face-to-face foci (the Inventory of Learning Style, ILS, Vermunt, 1998; and the Inventory of Learning Cooperative Patterns, ILCP, Gutierrez-Braojos, L—pez Fuentes, Salmeron-V’lchez, in press). The confirmatory factorial analysis of this solution, using maximum likelihood with oblimin rotation, yielded acceptable Goodness-of-Fit indices. The reliability of each factor was greater than .80.

A Knowledge Forum tool, called Contribution, was used to gather data on the studentsÕ participation in the community (reading and building-on) in solving an authentic problem in the knowledge-forum environment. Moreover, Impacting ÒBuildersÓ was a measure that asked each member of the community the following questions: What were the most important contributions to your learning process? What were the most original contributions of the community? Based on these data, a structural analysis was performed to calculate the relative indices of the reading, the build-ons, and the impact of these constructions on the community.

Finally, students were graded on a test composed of real problems. Thus, the focus of activity and the assessment were aligned.

In general, our results indicate that three levels (individual, face to face and community) explain the impact on builders and test performance. The individual level was the most relevant in explaining reading and build-on activity in the knowledge-forum environment, whereas the community environment was the most relevant in explaining the impact on builders and test performance. However, face-to-face activity was less relevant than expected. In the scientific poster we discuss possible reasons for these results.

POSTER (3000) - Profiles of Student Participation in Virtual Computer Learning and Building Environment. Calixto GutiŽrrez-Braojos, Purificaci—n Salmer—n-V’lchez, University of Granada, Spain, & JosŽ Miguel Garc’a, Trent University, Canada.

In the last decade, a large number of studies have emerged to facilitate internalization and building opportunities mediated by virtual learning environments. Within this framework, two interrelated lines of empirical studies have analyzed the dynamics generated in this environment. A first group of studies, called discussion and analysis of contributions, was directed toward examining dialogic and cognitive processes involved in internalization and knowledge building (e.g. Chuy, Zhang, Resendes, Scardamalia, & Bereiter, 2011). A second group of studies using structural analysis have examined participation and interaction during asynchronous activity building (e.g. Philip, 2010). 

These studies show that the virtual learning environment does not always produce symmetrical benefits for the members of the community, sometimes generating compact communities and sometimes fragile ones. In a compact community there are shared knowledge-building objectives, with relatively symmetrical degrees of participation and building efforts. In fragile communities, a large number of members are more dedicated to individual than to shared objectives, or many of these participants lack motivation for community knowledge building, showing high levels of asymmetry. In this sense, it is logical to consider that a thorough analysis of profiles of participation and building processes, as well as the building impact on the community, could indicate what type of community was generated by participants (compact or fragile). Thus, the aim of the present poster was to identify the presence of these types of communities, analyzing profiles of students in the virtual community, namely, the Knowledge Forum. 

The tool, called Contribution and embedded in the Knowledge Forum, was used to gather data on studentsÕ participation in the community to solve authentic problems in the knowledge forum environment. Moreover, Impacting ÒBuildersÓ was a measure that asked every member of the community the following questions: What were the most important contributions to your learning process? What were the most original contributions of the virtual community? Based on these data, a structural analysis was performed to calculate the relative indices of the reading, the build-ons, the total building time, the mean building time, and the impact of these constructions on the community. Finally, a cluster analysis was applied using K-means to find out what types of profiles were generated in the community, and which members made up these clusters.

In general, our results indicated four student profiles. Two profiles showed an adequate participation, and they were relevant knowledge builders for their community peers. However, the size of these profiles is a worrisome aspect, because the sum of the members in both profiles was only 15% of the total number of community members. A second type is composed of students participating in the community whose contributions are not very relevant to their community peers. This profile made up 27% of the total community. But the problem in this community was that the participation and relevance of the build-ons from a high percentage of students was insufficient for generating a compact community. Based on this result, this poster concludes and discusses three interrelated factors in planning future experiences.

PAPER (3002) - Knowledge Building Research in New Zealand: The Journey Begins. Kwok-Wing Lai*, Ken Pullar**, Ann Trewern*, (*University of Otago College of Education, **OtagoNet), New Zealand.

This paper describes two Knowledge Building research projects that are currently undertaken in New Zealand. The first is a two-year project (2012-2013) investigating the design and implementation of computer-supported knowledge building communities in 9 senior secondary classes, in a variety of school subjects, both in on-site and distance classes. The second project (2011-2012) is an investigation of using Knowledge Forum to support potentially high achieving Year 13 students from rural/ provincial or low decile (in socio-economic terms) New Zealand schools to cultivate an interest in science and enhance their ability to excel in the university entrance (NCEA) examinations.  There are two major challenge of these projects: (1) all the participants are senior secondary students and the teaching units in these projects have to align closely with external exam standards; and (2) most of the participants are distance students teaching is these classes are primarily conducted by videoconferencing.

PAPER (3003) - A Principle-Based Approach to Engaging and Sustaining Teacher and Student Growth in Knowledge Building. Carol K. K. Chan, The University of Hong Kong, & Diane Hui, Lingnan University of Hong Kong, China.

In response to a major challenge for inquiry-based model and classroom innovation concerned with the constraints of task- and activity-based approaches, this paper outlines a design-based research for innovation to engage and sustain student and teacher learning and thus growth through a principle-based approach to deep understanding, and creative creation of new and diverse knowledge and solutions in knowledge building. Through a Knowledge Building Teacher Network in Hong Kong, mixed-methods, longitudinal data were collected from focused analyses of eight teachers in the network. Quantitative analyses reported changing patterns of student engagement on Knowledge Forum; and qualitative analyses reflected teachersÕ changing understanding and practice of knowledge building inquiry and pedagogy through the principle-based approach, thus enhancing the socio-cultural capacity for innovation in an Asian context.

PAPER (3006) - Unraveling Idea Development in Discourse Trajectories. Iassen Halatchliyski, Aileen Oeberst, Martina Bientzle, Franziska Bokhorst, Knowledge Media Research Center, Tuebingen, Germany; Jan van Aalst, University of Hong Kong, China.

With the present paper we want to shed light onto an issue that is central within the knowledge building theory but only little studied – the development of ideas in collaborative learning discourse. Starting from the construction of a network of explicit and implicit relations between ideas, we apply a scientometric method to tackle the temporality of collaborative processes based on the structure of successive ideas. The resulting discourse trajectories are shown to give a holistic and also a detailed view on how knowledge advances when their interpretation is combined with a qualitative analysis of the content of the ideas and their relations. The weighted relevance of relations between ideas enables the identification of sub-topics in the discourse, important ideas, and influence or uptake events.

PAPER (3007) - Bridging Technologies: Stepping-Stones for the Enactment of Knowledge Building Communities. John Ow, & Katerine Bielaczyc, Learning Science Lab, National Institute of Education, Singapore.

The enactment of the Knowledge Building Communities model in classrooms with starting conditions of the social infrastructure very different from Knowledge Building Communities can be problematic. We propose the use of Bridging Technologies as a stepping-stone to bridge the gap between the social infrastructures of these classrooms and Knowledge Building Communities. The design principles of Bridging Technologies are introduced. Research from Ideas First, is presented to illustrate the use of the principles to design the Think Card, an example of a Bridging Technology.

POSTER (3008) - Supporting the Progressive Improvement of Ideas through Learning Multi-player Epistemic Games. Katerine Bielaczyc, John Ow, Learning Science Lab, National Institute of Education, Singapore.

This poster describes our efforts to understand how to bring the Knowledge Building Communities model (KBC model) (Scardamalia, 2002; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006) to life in K-12 classrooms.  As Scardamalia and Bereiter (2007) point out Ògetting teachers started is a crucial problem for FCL[1], Knowledge Building, and any other innovation that involves a major change in pedagogyÉ Among promoters of Knowledge Building there is considerable disagreement about the best strategy for getting teachers startedÓ (p. 209).   We propose that a powerful means for supporting classroom enactments of the KBC model entails conceptualizing Knowledge Forum as a Ògame-boardÓ for playing multi-player epistemic games. Participation in knowledge building communities is then scaffolded through learning the moves of such games.  

One of the key challenges teachers face is that the creation of KBC classrooms is not enacted on a blank slate. Bringing the KBC model to life in K-12 classrooms involves fostering a very different culture than those found in industrial-era classrooms, and even many reform classrooms.  Thus, our investigations concern how can we support the necessary shifts that teachers and their students must move through? 

A useful construct for guiding enculturation into knowledge work is Òepistemic gamesÓ (Collins & Ferguson, 1993; Morrison & Collins, 1995, Perkins, 1997). Epistemic games refer to strategic play with disciplinary knowledge and are based on the study of disciplinary communities such as Physical, Biological, and Social Scientists (e.g., the cost-benefit-analysis game, the systems-dynamics game). The need to enculturate students and teachers into understanding knowledge creation as a collective endeavor led us to extend the idea of epistemic games to multi-player epistemic games (Bielaczyc, Kapur, & Collins, in press). In multi-player epistemic games, an individual player need not make the full range of moves in a particular game by him or herself --- instead the moves can be distributed across multiple players on a Òshared field.Ó Multi-player epistemic game play is intended to mirror the distributed work of disciplinary communities where individual members make contributions, others act upon such contributions (improve upon, synthesize, argue against, etc.), and knowledge is created and improved through the collective workings of the whole. 

In order to examine our design theories in practice, we present research on Ideas First, a design-based research program involving enactments of the KBC model in Singaporean primary science classrooms (Bielaczyc & Ow, 2007; 2010; Ow & Bielaczyc, 2007). Specifically, we present data on students learning Òknowledge building movesÓ as part of a Progressive-Investigation Game (Figure 1). We report on analyses of student work on generating build-onÕs in a collective problem space and the changes in the quality of studentsÕ knowledge building moves over 2 years (from Primary 3 to Primary 4).

POSTER (3009) - Assessing Knowledge Building Symmetries of Position, Power, & Participation of Family Physicians in a CME Course. Leila Rachel Lax, Marlene Scardamalia, Don Philip, & Anita Singh, University of Toronto, Canada.

Purpose: The processes of creating and refining knowledge cannot be separated from the power structures of the social contexts in which they take place. This study highlights participant relationships of position, power, and contributions to collective Knowledge Building in a continuing medical education course. Social network structural and semantic analyses were used to demonstrate relationships between students, and students and the facilitator. Analysis of sociocognitive interactions enables relational assessment and construction of Knowledge Building identity, both individually and collectively. Social network analysis used as embedded concurrent feedback can provide students and facilitators with timely information to reflect on and act on – to potentially change asymmetries in power toward democratization of knowledge and ideas.

Knowledge Building is a fundamentally social process requiring creation and continual improvement of ideas, with members sharing responsibility for advancing not just individual, but group knowledge. The assessment of online collective knowledge improvement, beyond pre/posttests outcomes, has been somewhat challenging. Online activity in most Web-based CME courses is measured in terms of individual read/write activity statistics. Social network analysis provides us with collective measures and tools to answer questions about how knowledge improves, – by examining relationships between individuals within a community; not just individual accomplishment (i.e., who is contributing).


Methods: This research study examined individual and collective Knowledge Building by family physicians and a palliative care expert (facilitator) in the End-of-Life Care Distance Education Program, Five modules were designed in Knowledge Forum and each was conducted over a 1-month period.

Results: Power analysis of student/facilitator centrality relationships demonstrated shifts across modules and numerous findings of shared core position between facilitator and students. Interesting Knowledge Building profiles emerged. Students with the highest pre/posttest knowledge gains demonstrated different identities; some participated at the periphery of the network and some at the core (as would be expected). In addition, social network structural and semantic analysis of facilitator engagement showed dichotomous results of high facilitator engagement within a very active and well distributed student network. Contrary to popular notions of democratization in education, it appears that the expert/teacher/facilitator may be extremely active as a ÒpartnerÓ (co-creator of knowledge), as well as, a ÒmentorÓ within a social network and valuable Knowledge Building may go on at the ÒperipheryÓ as well as at the ÒcoreÓ of online discourse in CME. 

Conclusions: Social network structural and semantic relationships herein are indicative of Knowledge Building principles of symmetry, community knowledge/collective responsibility, and epistemic agency, necessary for the democratization of CME. Results of this study highlight the importance of relational assessment of position, power, and participation for collective feedback and reflection on individual identity within the social context. Addressing issues of power in collaborative knowledge construction are crucial if more democratic, equitable, and widespread Knowledge Building communities are to become possible. 

PAPER (3011) - Embedded and Transformative Assessment in an Online Course: A Design Based Project Research. Stefano Cacciamani, University of Valle dÕAosta, Italy.

The Knowledge Building Community model suggests that it is possible to organize a community that creates new knowledge through a collaborative inquiry activity. An effective indicator that a knowledge-building activity works is the presence of a relationship between reading and writing and the presence of Advanced Epistemic Agency in the activity of each member of the community. The focus of this study is to analyze how to implement the KBC principle ÒEmbedded and transformative assessmentÓ in online courses at the University. For this purpose, two implementations of the principle in two different online courses have been analyzed, considering in the first case the evaluation of knowledge in face-to-face meetings, and in the second case, the evaluation of knowledge and a metacognitive reflection on the work strategies in an online portfolio. The results show that in the second implementation exists a correlation between reading and writing from the module immediately following the online portfolio and maintenance of Advanced Epistemic Agency, comparing the activity from the beginning to the end of an online course.

PAPER (3012) - Knowledge Building Pedagogy in Kindergarten, an Exploratory Study. Oscar Ernesto Hernandez Lopez, IKIT MŽxico/Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla; Angela Alejandra Durana Espinosa, IKIT MŽxico; Adriana Villanueva Cruz, Arelia Carrasco Gomez, Instituto Rabindranath Tagore, Puebla, Mexico.

This paper presents research conducted in kindergarten to ensure that children in the third year of this level conduct research according to Knowledge Building pedagogy with particular emphasis on four principles: Real Ideas - Authentic Problems, Idea Diversity, Pervasive Knowledge Building and Democratizing Knowledge. If it comes to placing children in a complete process of creating knowledge from early age, the first school age is in kindergarten and target with them must also be advancing the frontiers of knowledge as perceived themselves. Although children still are unable to write, they can organize their ideas and represent their thoughts through drawings; in addition to that at this stage also they develop literacy, Knowledge Building pedagogy helps. Children from his first steps at school, they learn to ask, to seek answers and organize their research process so that they can create a natural way to build knowledge that is easier than to change the methods and processes of traditional education when they are in higher grades. The interests of children who undergo this research are directed to the study of dinosaurs in the first stage and insects in the second stage and the research focuses on the way they respond to questions that they raised. The KF canÕt be used when children still can«t write and are just learning to read and especially when there is no infrastructure for this technology, however, this research shows that it is possible for children construct knowledge collaboratively as demonstrated in the second phase reported in this paper.

PAPER (3013) - Making Collective Progress Visible: The Design and Application of Idea Thread Mapper (ITM) for Sustained Knowledge Building. Jianwei Zhang, Mei-Hwa Chen, Huixian Li, Yuheng Zhao, Jingping Chen, Baibhav Lal Rajbhandari, Yanqing Sun, Teresa Ferrer-Mico, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Robin Shaw, Benjamin Peebles, Julia Cain, Sarah Naqvi, Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, Canada.

Essential to the productivity of knowledge-creating communities is a self-sustained, progressive trajectory of inquiry by which ideas are continually generated, refined, and further built upon by peers to formulate more advanced ideas and problems, expanding the communityÕs collective knowledge that continually informs further initiatives (Bereiter, 2002; Dunbar, 1997; Engestršm, 2008; Sawyer, 2007). However, existing inquiry learning programs mostly focus on relatively short inquiry activities (a few hours or days) carried out by small groups. Online tools developed to trace and represent idea development also focus on short-term, small-group discussions (Hewitt & Woodruff, 2010; Suthers et al., 2008).

The work discussed in this session contributes to expanding the vision of inquiry-based pedagogy to support a long-term, collective, sustained trajectory of inquiry for community-wide collaboration and knowledge building (Zhang, 2012). To represent and visualize community-wide, collective progress in extended online discourse, we recently created a software tool, Idea Threads Mapper (ITM), which interoperates with Knowledge Forum. With active student engagement, ITM helps make the collective trajectory of inquiry visible for ongoing reflection and advancement. It does so by capturing important themes emerging from interactive discourse and constructing theme-based idea threads, each of which is composed of a series of conceptually related discourse entries that address a shared principal problem over an extended period of time (Zhang et al., 2007). As a timeline-based collective knowledge-mapping tool, ITM helps students to monitor idea progress over time and create higher levels of knowledge representations (e.g. threads and journeys of thinking) for the whole classroom, which make idea progress further sharable across classrooms.

The purpose of this interactive session is to present the design and development of ITM, demonstrate its use, and analyze a set of pilot studies conducted in three elementary classrooms, with the audience engaged to collaborative envision how ITM may be used and improved to support sustained knowledge building across classrooms.

INTERACTIVE SESSION (3014) - Embedded Phenomena for Knowledge Communities: Supporting complex inquiry practices and interactions in the elementary science classroom.  Jim Slotta, Cheryl Madeira, Mike Tissenbaum, Michelle Lui, Cresencia Fong, Rebecca Cober, Colin McCann, and Matt Zokowski, University of Toronto, Canada; Tom Moher, Alessandro Gnoli, Brenda L—pez Silva, University of Illinois, Chicago; Richard Messina, Ben Peebles & Julia Murray, Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, Canada.

The goal of this session is to introduce participants to a new approach towards engaging students and teachers to work together as a community of learners. Developed by Dr. Slotta and his colleagues, the Knowledge Community and Inquiry Model (KCI), supports the design of collaborative inquiry ÒscriptsÓ, emphasizing a collective epistemology where students create a knowledge base that serves as a resource for subsequent inquiry activities. KCI features and design principles guide the design of curriculum, defining the community, its knowledge base, and activities where students add relevant content, and build upon one anotherÕsÕ ideas. This session will highlight a recent collaboration between Dr. SlottaÕs lab at OISE and a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The collaboration connected the KCI model with an inquiry paradigm for elementary school science developed by UIC, called ÒEmbedded PhenomenaÓ, where learners are engaged in extended investigations of simulated scientific phenomena presumed to occupy the physical space of their classrooms.

Participants will have the opportunity to see a series of posters on the research that was conducted; Interact with the actual (dynamic, running) Wallscopes from the intervention, allowing participants to see what exactly the ICS elementary students were inquiring about; And get hands-on experience with our SAIL Smart Space (S3) technology to make notes, questions, and tags about the posters, aggregated in real-time to create folksonomic tagging and enable a culminating discussion using the front display.

PAPER (3015) - Meme: Conceptual Framework for Idea Improvement in Knowledge Building? Nicole Straefling, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Karsten Krauskopf, Johanna Bertram, Stefan Huber, Knowledge Media Research Center, Germany; Astrid Wichmann, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Jan van Aalst, University of Hong Kong; Katherine Panciera, University of Minnesota, USA; Ya Ping Hsiao, Open University of the Netherlands, Netherlands.

Knowledge building can be seen as a process, where a key characteristic is the idea improvement. In the theory of knowledge building ideas are seen as improvable. Although the theory is essential, still little research has been done to clarify the process nature of idea improvement. Thus, the development of ideas within a community of learners was examined for this contribution. Therefore, a conceptual framework was proposed to understand ideas as memes and investigate the memetic processes affecting them. This framework was applied to an computer mediated discourse of students, more precisely, a three week unit from a Knowledge Forum data set. Here, the survival path of the memes were investigated. Therefore mixed methods were used: In the first step a qualitative method was used to identify the memes, and secondly a quantitative method was applied to define quantitative indicators to work out the fitness of memes. The contribution ends with the discussion of benefits, open questions, and some limitations of the suggested framework.

POSTER (3016) - Astronomy Partnerships as a Gateway for Knowledge Building. Linda Strubbe, John Percy, Michael Reid - Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics / University of Toronto, Canada.

Astronomy is a frontier science that is also deeply rooted in culture and draws observations from around the world. As such, astronomy has the power to inspire people of all ages, providing a gateway to learning science and analytical reasoning while fostering tolerance and respect among people from diverse backgrounds. The astronomical community is actively engaged in outreach locally, nationally and internationally, with special interest in reaching underserved populations, such as inner-city and Aboriginal people in Canada, and people in developing countries abroad. Astronomy is usually part of the school curriculum, but few teachers have background in astronomy; at the same time, although there are strong programs of education research in astronomy, and knowledge-building inquiry-based astronomy activities exist, astronomers and teachers are generally not familiar with them. For these reasons, we as astronomers see the power of partnering with education researchers (at OISE) and science teachers (through our connections with teacher training programs locally and internationally), to help astronomy education realize its full potential as an inspiring vehicle for helping students create their own scientific/analytic understanding. We present our work-in-progress on developing a partnership between a 9th grade class in South Africa and a similar class Toronto, to capitalize on our locations in different hemispheres to study the phases of the Moon and the seasons together. We also describe other astronomy education work of U of T's Dunlap Institute. Our goal for presenting at this workshop is to build a partnership with education researchers: we'd like to get feedback on our astronomy outreach activities, and work on incorporating education research results and evaluations into our outreach, so that it can be as effective as possible.  

WORKSHOP (3019) - Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer (KBDeX): A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse. Jun Oshima, Ritsuko Oshima, Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Shizuoka University, Japan; Marlene Scardamalia, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada.

Recent learning theory has offered a new approach that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning: acquisition and participation (Paavola, Lipponen, & Hakkarainen, 2004; Sfard, 1998). However, current assessment techniques do not act in concert with the development of such a theoretical approach to learning. In this workshop we will discuss a possible approach to analyzing learning from an integrative perspective using network theory. A brief review is given of recent literature on learning theories that introduce a new perspective on learning: the knowledge-creation metaphor. By using the well-known knowledge building community model, current assessment techniques are shown to be insufficient for describing learning in the knowledge-creation metaphor. Hence, to address this deficiency, social network analysis (SNA) is introduced as a novel assessment approach for learning in the knowledge-creation metaphor.

Although educational studies have proposed the application of SNA to learning analysis as a new assessment technique in the knowledge-creation metaphor, an exact methodology has yet to be established. Several researchers familiar with SNA in education science, and especially those publishing results in scholarly journals, are involved in developing or refining software for SNA. SNA software that can easily explore discourse data is needed for those interested in using SNA to analyze discourse data for examining participation patterns and states of community knowledge. As a consequence, we have developed the Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer (KBDeX) software. In this workshop, we introduce KBDeX and explain how three different types of discourse-based social networks are represented. Moreover, SNA conducted with KBDeX is demonstrated by using two sets of oral discourse data from small groups. Finally, the potential contribution of KBDeX to a new complementary assessment approach in the knowledge-creation metaphor is discussed.

POSTER (3021) - Linking Open Resources to K-12 Curricula: Situated Cognition and Interdisciplinary Problem Solving. Xun Ge, Lihui Liao, The University of Oklahoma, USA.

It is commonly recognized that school instruction is often oversimplified or decontextualized from everyday life (Bransford, 2000; Feltovich, Spiro, Coulson, & Feltovich, 1996). Textbooks and resources in schools often enhance rote memorization instead of exposing students to multiple perspectives and helping them build multiple representations (Feltovich et al., 1996). As a result, students often fail to apply knowledge they have learned to real-world contexts. The distilled knowledge or simplified word problems students learn at school discourage them from critical thinking and real-world problem solving due to a lack of relevance of school work to their reality. Besides, decontextualizing knowledge would demotivate students from knowledge creation (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003), which is a very important aspect of the 21st century.

To address the issues above, it is critical to create a knowledge-building environment to engage students in authentic knowledge creation process (Scardamalia, Bransford, Kozma, & Quellmalz, 2012). In this research project, we propose to utilize the rich and open resources from the Internet, specifically, the datasets released by government and some organizations intended to benefit the general public: e.g., the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (http://www.bls.gov/home.htm), Department of Energy (http://energy.gov/), U.S. Geological Survey (http://www.usgs.gov/), and Oklahoma Climatological Survey (http://climate.ok.gov/). For example, the website of Department of Energy provides maps and data, which presents AmericaÕs energy challenges and corresponding solutions. The Oklahoma Climatological Survey (OCS) provides climatological data on air temperature, wind, ground water, heavy rain, snow, storms, etc. These open data provide a wealth of real-world information for learners to select and organize information, interpret data, apply information to solve everyday life problems, and build knowledge (Bonk, 2009). The open data can be easily linked to the current common core state standards for K-12 education (which have been implemented in many states across the U.S.) and be integrated into school curricula to help students build multiple representations of complex, ill-structured problems (Feltovich et al., 1996).

Thus far, we have been examining OklahomaÕs common core state standards for K12 and working to link open data to standards of different grade levels and subjects. For instance, one of Grade Two mathematics objectives is for students to Òuse their understanding of addition to develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 100Ó. This standard requires students to calculate the daily temperature differences based on the information the national weather website provides. Through this activity, students not only learn about the scientific principles of weather and gain deeper understanding of temperature change, but also use mathematics as a tool to help them understand the weather phenomenon. Thus, students are able to see the meaningfulness and relevance of mathematics and their role as problem solvers (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Taking another standard for example, students of high school must be able to Òexplain the role of inflation in an economic systemÓ. Students can study the data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and discuss what they should do if these price indexes rapidly increase. They can also be asked to discuss the worst inflation crisis in the U.S. recent history – Great Depression and the impact of the social consequences of inflations. When perceiving the usefulness of the open data, students will be motivated to be innovative knowledge creators and problem solvers.

Our future goal is to conduct designed research by working with teachers to create a pedagogy model to be implemented in schools. We will help teachers to integrate open data into their curricula and instruction to support their students to meet the core standards. In addition, it is important to go beyond by developing studentsÕ ability to solve complex problems and create knowledge. We will also design teacher professional development workshops to help teachers integrate open data for situated and cross-disciplinary learning. Our second goal is to gather data to test, validate, and improve the pedagogical model. Furthermore, we will also build a repository containing open and free resources, lesson plans, project ideas, and so on, and to create a virtual learning community consisting of teachers, students, parents, instructional designers, and domain experts. We believe that the proposed research initiative will benefit all stakeholders to strive for building cultural capacity for innovation.



POSTER (3022) - A Developmental Study of Promisingness Judgments. Bodong Chen, Marlene Scardamalia, Carl Bereiter, University of Toronto, Canada.

Prior research on Òpromisingness judgmentsÓ found that students as young as 9 to 10 years old are able to achieve greater knowledge advances by taking time to determine which ideas generated in their community discourse seem to be most promising as the focus of their subsequent work. To deepen our understanding of promisingness judgments, this study aimed to uncover the developmental aspect of promisingness evaluation as well as its relationship with domain knowledge. We designed a survey and invited participants from different age groups to evaluate a list of ideas about optics according to a multi-level promisingness scale. In this scale were embedded two kinds of judgments: promising for achieving deep understanding and for making scientific a breakthrough. Students from Grade 4, 5 and 7, together with adult non-experts and domain experts, participated in this study. Results indicated domain knowledge played an important role in promisingness judgments; nevertheless, as long as young students acquired some basic content knowledge, they could perform well in identifying promising ideas in the context of making scientific breakthroughs. Correlation analysis found that capability of identifying such ideas was significantly correlated with age and domain knowledge. However, because age and domain knowledge were also highly correlated, it was difficult to determine which factor played a more dominant role in promisingness judgments. Future research with revised instruments will address these issues.

PAPER (3023) - Exploring patterns of interaction in Knowledge Forum databases using Knowledge Connections Analyzer (KCA). Yuqin Yang, Jan Van Aalst, University of Hong Kong, China.

The purpose of this study is to explore the patterns of interaction in Knowledge Forum databases using the Knowledge Connections Analyzer (KCA), so that pedagogical issues related to facilitating knowledge building can be identified and further addressed. Eight databases developed by teachers and students in the Knowledge building Teacher Network are analyzed according to the four questions embedded in the KCA. Results identify substantial differences among these databases regarding the four questions for which the KCA retrieves evidence. Implications are also discussed.

PAPER (3024) The Effect of Meta-Discourse on Ways of Contributing to a Explanation-Seeking Dialogue in Grade 2. Monica Resendes, Bodong Chen, Maria Chuy, Marlene Scardamalia, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada.

The study reported below explores educational innovations that can enhance student competencies for engaging in collaborative, explanation-seeking discourse. Characteristics of productive collaborative inquiry include the representation of a variety of contributor roles in the shared discourse, as well as group engagement in Òmeta-discourseÓ, which is occasional periods of reflection about the state and direction of the communityÕs discourse itself. This research seeks to determine the extent to which a formative assessment tool specifically designed to engage students in meta-discourse can help to enhance studentsÕ ways of contributing to explanation-seeking discourse, and to what extent their expanding contribution repertoire helps students to advance community knowledge as a whole. Results indicate that metadiscourse sessions can help students make ÒTheorizingÓ contributions as well as advance group knowledge, and that explicit discussion of contribution types facilitated through the use of the MetaDiscourse tool can help students expand their repertoires to include a wider range of discourse moves.

POSTER (3025) - The Effect of Contributor Roles in Knowledge Building Discourse: Can Expanding Individual Contribution Repertoires Lead to Group Knowledge Advancement?  Monica Resendes, Bodong Chen, Maria Chuy, Marlene Scardamalia, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada.

Studies exploring the characteristics of productive collaborative discourse in the classroom show a variety of contributor roles, such as question-asker, mediator, critical thinker, etc. (Resnick, 1996). Helping students develop capacities for making a variety of contributions to group dialogue is necessary to sustain productive discourse and thus to help them advance their knowledge. The central objectives of this study explore the extent to which i.) students engaged in collaborative knowledge building develop distinct contributor roles or styles; ii.) distinct roles contribute to the knowledge advancement of the group at large. Preliminary analysis suggests that a fair amount of students show consistent contribution patterns across grades. Moreover, there are a number of ÒoutlierÓ contributors who dominate one particular role such as ÒquestionerÓ or ÒtheorizerÓ. Continued analysis is needed in order to investigate significant relationships between outlier roles and group knowledge advancement.

POSTER (3026) - The Knowledge Building climate change curriculum: A starter unit to support student agency and empowerment about a critical world issue. Richard Reeve, Azza Sharkawy, Queen's University, Canada.

The implementation of the Knowledge Building approach, in contexts where it is not currently being undertaken, is an area of work that requires innovation. This yearÕs professional development theme suggests that there needs to be an extension beyond resources to focus on professional networks and teacher exchanges. It is our stance that a carefully developed Òstarter unitÓ for KB could also assist new teachers in seeing how the KB approach functions while allowing for required levels of student agency and personal empowerment to emerge. The KB climate change curriculum we have developed maps the questions, conceptual understandings and general KB trajectories that a class of 11 and 12 year olds engaged in as they began to inquire about the topic of climate change. We developed this curriculum through a design study with an experienced KB teacher and her grade 5/6 class (n=18) at an elementary school in Ontario, Canada. In addition to describing the trajectories engaged in by students related to their questions and conceptual understandings our curriculum unit also presents teachers new to KB with current resources and lesson plans to support teachers through the critical moments during which the students in our design study had difficulty (e.g. greenhouse effect). Beyond providing these resources our curriculum is supported by contact with a professional network that includes the teacher and researchers involved in this design study. Our goal is for an elementary teacher and their class to use this KB curriculum unit as a starter unit for the KB approach.

PAPER (3027) - Promisingness Judgments by Grade 3 and 4. Bodong Chen, Marlene Scardamalia, Monica Resendes, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada.

The ability to identify promising ideas is an important but obscure and undeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the dynamics of promisingness judgments in knowledge-building discourse by young students. Toward this end we engaged a Grade 4 class in a year-long journey of promisingness judgments. In this process students were engaged in discussion and reflection of the concept of promisingness and used a Promising Ideas tool to identify promising ideas in their written online discourse. Data are still to be analyzed at this point and results will be available by the end of this month. These results inform future work in classroom interventions and tool development to promote promisingness judgments in collaborative knowledge building.

PAPER (3028) - Nature of Problem Spaces in Knowledge Building Practice. Chew Lee Teo, Ministry of Education, Singapore.

This paper builds on a variety of models of teacher thinking and development to propose a problem space model (Figure 1a, 1b and 1c) specifically geared to the development of Knowledge Building practices. This model aims to provide a theoretically- and empirically-based description of shifts teachers undergo as they gain skill in Knowledge Building pedagogy. This perspectival shift, from a centrist to relational, is examined in five problem spaces: Curriculum/Standards, Social Interaction, Student Capability, Classroom Structures and Constraints, and Technology. Underlying the centrist perspective is a belief in established procedures and goals typically understood to characterize effective teaching. Underlying the relational perspective is a belief in the capacity of students to develop and improve their own ideas, and a belief that in doing so students will not only mature as knowledge-builders, but will also excel in the achievement of traditional knowledge goals. The research uses multiple data sources (teacher meetings, journals, interviews) to analyze the work of a group of 13 teachers over a full school year. Results show that Knowledge Building teachers construct and explore the same problem spaces as other teachers. What distinguishes them, and places them on a different trajectory, is the relational approach that brings ideas to the centre in each problem space. The work of teachers with different levels of experience is analyzed to characterize the centrist to relational shift, which corresponds to three embedded shifts (a) surface to deep interpretation of problem and processing of information, (b) routine to adaptive approach to classroom activities and student engagement, and (c) procedure-based to principle-based reflective action.

POSTER (3030) - Team Games in Physical Education Classes Make Idea Improvement Possible. JosŽ Alfredo Naranjo, Fernando D’az del Castillo - Gimnasio La Monta–a, Colombia.

Team games developed in Physical Education classes have led to moments of peer dialogue in order to solve problematic situations. During different moments of the classes, the games are proposed and the leaders, who organize two or three teams, are chosen. After this, the teacher calls the leaders and describes a problem, a challenge or a goal to be achieved. He also explains the objective of the game and the way they have to find the solution to the problem. The important issue here is to take the time needed to achieve a common solution by improving each idea proposed by members of the teams. As the game progresses, the time for dialogue can increase; the initially expressed ideas achieve major development because each participant offers insights based on his own experience.

The main added value of this methodology is that the students learn how to work independently, without a teacherÕs direct presence and orientation. This work is being structured and has taken place at our school for three years. Today, this methodology is being implemented with students from 7 to 17 years of age.

POSTER (3032) - The Quebec RNS initiative: Networked knowledge building communities (KBCs) in primary schools. Pier-Ann Boutin, Christian Perreault, Kesi Walters, ƒmilie LabontŽ-Hubert - University Laval, QuŽbec, RNS, Canada.

The Remote Netwok School (RNS) is a research-intervention initiative started in 2002. It was established in order to find new solutions to the challenges of small primary and secondary schools in different regions of Quebec. It was meant to "enrich the learning environment of students in small rural schools in Quebec to ensure that this was not to be a question of quality of education leading to their closure" (Laferriere, Allaire, et al., submitted). In the RNS, the classes are networked with one or more other classes, and different types of activities are put forward: teamwork between students from different remote classrooms, presentations to the whole ÒnetworkedÓ community of the progress made by students in one single KBC, interclass exposŽs through videoconferencing, team-teaching according to teachersÕ expertise or studentsÕ needs, etc. The pedagogical model put forward in the RNS is Bereiter & ScardamaliaÕs knowledge building community (2003). Five principles were derived to support such a community, and guide and inform teacher practice (Allaire & Lusignan, 2011): 1) Authentic problems explored through complementarity of ideas, 2) Improvement and diversification of ideas through participatory discourse; 3) Student empowerment in a democratic climate; 4) Reference to reliable sources throughout the inquiry process and 5) Shared and in-context assessment, throughout the process.

RNS is a design-based research (Collins, Joseph, & Bielaczyc, 2004; Design-Based Research Collective, 2003) which is in its fifth research iteration. Over the years, research has identified different benefits for students and challenges for teachers (Allaire & Lusignan, 2011).

Le modle quŽbŽcois de lՃƒR: Les communautŽs de coŽlaboration de connaissances en rŽseau au primaire

LՃcole ŽloignŽe en RŽseau (ƒƒR) est une initiative de recherche-intervention nŽe en 2002. Elle a ŽtŽ mise en place afin de trouver des solutions nouvelles aux dŽfis des petites Žcoles primaires et secondaires des rŽgions du QuŽbec. On cherchait alors ˆ Ç enrichir lÕenvironnement dÕapprentissage dՎlves de petites Žcoles rurales du QuŽbec afin de faire en sorte que ce ne soit pas une question de qualitŽ dՎducation qui entraine leur fermeture È (Laferrire, Allaire, et al., soumis). Dans lՃƒR, les classes sont mises en rŽseau avec une ou plusieurs autres, et toutes sortes dÕactivitŽs y sont vŽcues : travaux dՎquipe entre Žlves de classes distantes, projection en grand groupe des avancŽes faites par les Žlves dÕune classe distante, exposŽs interclasses gr‰ce ˆ la visioconfŽrence, partage de t‰ches dÕenseignement selon lÕexpertise ou selon les besoins des Žlves, etc. Le modle pŽdagogique de la classe mis de lÕavant dans lՃƒR est la communautŽ de coŽlaboration de connaissances (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 2003). Cinq principes en dŽcoulant sont mis de lÕavant pour orienter une telle communautŽ et Žclairer la pratique pŽdagogique des enseignants (Allaire & Lusignan, 2011) : 1) Collaboration et complŽmentaritŽ des idŽes ˆ partir de questions rŽelles et de problmes authentiques; 2) AmŽlioration et diversification des idŽes de manire participative par le discours; 3) Responsabilisation des Žlves dans un esprit dŽmocratique; 4) ConsidŽration des sources fiables tout au long de la dŽmarche dÕinvestigation et 5) ƒvaluation partagŽe, en contexte, tout au long du processus. LՃƒR est une expŽrimentation de devis (design-based research) (Collins, Joseph, & Bielaczyc, 2004; Design-Based Research Collective, 2003) qui en est ˆ sa 5e itŽration de recherche. Au fil des annŽes, la recherche a repŽrŽ diffŽrents apports et dŽfis ˆ relever dans lՃƒR pour les enseignants et les Žlves. (Allaire & Lusignant, 2011).

PAPER (3033) - Knowledge Forum uses for the improvement of explanation skills. Christine Hamel - Laval University, Canada.

This study investigates the use of Knowledge Forum (KF) in K-6 classrooms (n=251) to develop studentsÕ explanation skills. To this end, we conducted pre- and post- activity interviews with students who used KF to investigate various topics. Their online collaborative discourse was also analyzed. Our results show that: 1) studentsÕ explanations improved significantly between pre- and post-activity interviews, 2) active KF users scored higher on the post interviews than less active users, even though active KF users scored lower than less active users on pre-activity interviews.

PAPER (3034) - The Teaching of Literature in Post Secondary Education (CEGEP) and Knowledge Forum: Metacognition, Creativity and Deep Understanding. JosŽe Larochelle  - Laval University, Canada.

Our design-experiment research examines the potential use of Knowledge Forum (KF) linked to a socioconstructivist pedagogy. Our research is rooted in a problem-based learning approach in college level classes[2] to promote the development of reading competencies, that is to say a deeper comprehension of literary texts, and, perhaps, to lead students to produce original interpretations of the compulsory works.

In order to document our exploratory objectives and test our research hypothesis, two groups were formed: an experimental group and a control group. Three types of data were collected for analysis. For students in the experimental group, we have the comments exchanged on KF. This corpus consists of 628 notes. We also have in our possession the explanatory essays of these students as well as their perceptions of their work, which was collected through a questionnaire with open questions distributed at the end of the trimester. In the case of the control group, only the written productions were retained in order to compare them with the essays of the experimental group.

We believed that a socioconstructivist pedagogy based on a problem approach related to the use of KF in a literature class at the college level could be a source of the use of metacognitive strategies. We have thus documented the use of these strategies by the students. Our analysis of their notes on the forum and of the platformsÕ functionalities they used actually shows that students will hold a discourse that could be described as being rather reflexive. Evidence supports students having developed better literary reading techniques due to this metacognitive reflection, in part because they have asked each other more questions about the work, which is also apparent in the studentsÕ comments on the perceptual questionnaire.

We also believed that such a pedagogy, tied to the use of KF in a college level literature course, could offer students a creative space, thus encouraging creativity. We have therefore documented the inventiveness of the students. Our analysis of their activity on the forum shows that students have used this opportunity to venture into the unknown since, through the forum, both individually and collectively, they have explored paths that often diverged from what was taught in class. For students, KF proved to be a good platform to test their reading hypotheses: In the forum, they had the right to be wrong before their answer counted, and they could learn from their mistakes because they received comments from their peers. They thus stressed the importance of participation in the forum, to validate their understanding of the text as much as controlling the insecurity inherent to the possibility of divergent thinking in the classroom.

Our research hypothesis was that the use of KF, integrated with a pedagogy rooted in problem-based learning in literature, would promote a better explanation of literary texts through knowledge built collectively using the forum.

The analysis of the data collected tends to confirm this hypothesis in several ways. There is a statistically meaningful difference between the results of the control group and the experimental group in their essays. In fact, our research shows a significant correlation between activity on the forum and the experimental group studentsÕ score on their second summative essay of the trimester. It seems to be the Knowledge Forum, specifically designed for the purpose of knowledge building, which has made a difference in the performance between both groups, an assertion supported by the analysis of the activity on the forum itself. Indeed, we find that the vast majority of notes on the forum appear to be an attempt at knowledge building and reflect a spirit of collaboration as students seem willing to seek and offer help in the forumÕs different views (workspaces). This willingness to provide mutual aid is supported by their reflections on the perceptual questionnaire.

POSTER (3036) - The language in use in a knowledge-buiding oriented and networked community of preservice teachers. StŽphane Allaire, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, ThŽrse Laferrire, Marie-Desneiges Hamel, & Christine Hamel, Laval University, Canada.

Vocabulary in use in a community of practice is one of the elements of the shared repertory newcomers need to acquire (Wenger, 1998, 2002). In teacher education, internships are crucial times for the development of such language ownership as they provide opportunities to use concepts in situ (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Reflection on practice, including a knowledge building pedagogical practice, through collaborative writing is important for vocabulary acquisition because of the requirements of objectification. In addition, a collective reflective context calls for concept elicitation, a process which requires precise use of a specific lexicon. In this paper, the community of practice includes teachers who practice a knowledge building pedagogy, and preservice teachers are induced into this professional community. Moreover, preservice teachers do a virtual practicum (Allaire and Laferriere, 2005), as they consult student cohortsÕ Knowledge Forum views that participated in the networked community (Laferriere, 2005) in previous years (2002-2012).  Therefore, pre-service teachers access the shared repertory by participating in an hybrid learning environment where educational guidelines are based on principles of the learning sciences (Khine & Saleh, 2010; Sawyer, 2005). Analysis of vocabulary will be made to account for the increase in the use of professional vocabulary and the particular context in which they do their internships.

Le langage professionnel utilisŽ par des stagiaires en enseignement dans une communautŽ en rŽseau axŽe sur la coŽlaboration de connaissances

LÕacquisition du vocabulaire en usage fait partie des ŽlŽments du rŽpertoire partagŽ que les nouveaux venus au sein dÕune communautŽ de pratique doivent sÕapproprier (Gervais, 2005 ; Wenger, 2002). En formation ˆ lÕenseignement, les stages reprŽsentent des moments cruciaux pour cette appropriation puisquÕils offrent des occasions dÕusage in situ (Lave & Wenger, 1991). La rŽflexion sur la pratique, entre autres celle par lՎcriture, est aussi importante pour lÕacquisition du vocabulaire en raison de lÕeffort dÕobjectivation quÕelle implique. En outre, un contexte collectif de rŽflexion convoque une exigence dÕexplicitation ˆ autrui, qui est susceptible de passer par la prŽcision du lexique usitŽ. Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous focalisons sur une communautŽ de pratique dont certains des membres pratiquent une pŽdagogie de la coŽlaboration de connaissances. Nous prŽsentons lÕutilisation effectuŽe dÕun practicum virtuel (Allaire et Laferrire, 2005), qui permet de visualiser lÕessentiel des perspectives dŽveloppŽes par des cohortes antŽrieures (2002-2012) ayant participŽ ˆ  cette communautŽ en rŽseau (Laferrire, 2005), pour soutenir lÕintŽgration professionnelle de futurs enseignants du secondaire et leur accs au rŽpertoire partagŽ dÕun contexte de stage qui promeut un environnement dÕapprentissage hybride dont les orientations pŽdagogiques prennent appuient sur des principes des sciences de lÕapprentissage (Khine & Saleh, 2010 ; Sawyer, 2005). Des analyses de vocabulaire seront effectuŽes pour rendre compte de la progression de lÕutilisation du lexique professionnel et du contexte particulier de stage.

POSTER (3037): Automation of Qualitative Content Analysis: Using Natural Language Processing to Assess Argumentative Knowledge Construction. Jin Mu, Karsten Stegmann, Frank Fischer - University of Munich, Germany - University of Hong Kong, China.

Computer-supported collaborative learning often implies that learners communicate with each other via text-based, digital discussion boards (Weinberger & Mandl, 2003). The online discussion of learners has been argued to reflect socio-cognitive processes and thus an improved discourse may lead to improved collaborative knowledge construction (Vygotsky, 1986). There has been a rapid growth in research (Brown, 1992; Gipps, 1999; Pryor & Crossouard, 2008) that is looking at new forms of assessments based on constructivist principles with the aim of revealing Òinformation that is not situated at the surface of the transcriptsÓ (de Wever, Schellens, Valcke, & Van Keer, 2006, p. 7). In several contributions, multi-dimensional content analysis to assess collaborative knowledge construction has been suggested (Larson & Dansereau, 1986; Mandl, Gruber, & Renkl, 1993).

Content analysis with multiple dimensions consumes a huge amount of resources in research projects related to online discussions. An automatic and thus faster classification of online discussions increase the speed of analyses of online discussions in research and may further affect the whole research process positively. One possible impact may be that an increasing number of researchers may be willing to analyze online discussions on multiple dimensions. Moreover, some of the resources made available through these automatic coding efforts may then be used to conduct follow-up studies or to try out additional pioneering approaches.

Figure 1: Application of the multi-layer framework (example)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies may allow automating content analysis. However, the state-of-the-art in machine learning and text mining approaches yields models that do not transfer well between corpora related to different topics. Also segmenting is a necessary step, but frequently, in prior published research on text classification the data has been segmented by hand. Against this background, we present a multi-layer framework for developing coding schemes optimized for automatic segmentation and topic independent coding by using the Natural Language Processing tool called SIDE (Mayfield & RosŽ, 2010a). The key idea is to extract the semantic and syntactic features of each single word by using the techniques of Part-of-Speech tagging and Named Entity Recognition before the raw data can be segmented and classified. a PoS tagger can be considered as a translator between two languages: the original language that has to be tagged and a Ômachine friendlyÕ language formed by the corresponding syntactic tags, such as noun or verb. The goal of Named Entity Recognition (NER) is to classify all elements of certain categories of "proper names" appearing in the raw text. Therefore NER provides not only additional features based on extracted entities for each word, but also a more context-independent way to train automatic classifiers.

The multi-dimensional approach to analyzing argumentative knowledge construction employed in the present study was mainly based on the framework developed by Weinberger and Fischer (2006) which proposed successful classifiers to analyze the Ômicro-level of argumentationÕ (e.g., how an single argument consists of a claim which can be supported by a ground with warrant. An entire process of extracting attributes, segmenting and coding of the selected example of argumentative discussion is illustrated in the Figure 1. By comparing the output from human and automatic coding, we achieved an accuracy of 99.7% (CohenÕs Kappa = .93) for segmenting and 84.5% (CohenÕs Kappa = .81) for coding of argumentative components. The algorithms were equally reliable regardless the topic that learners discussed about. Further studies are planed to test whether the algorithms are also applicable to analyze discussion with different coding dimensions and various domains.



PAPER (3039): Using Serendipity to advance knowledge building activities. Alisa Acosta – OISE, University of Toronto, Canada.

Serendipity has been shown throughout history to contribute towards creative advancements, scientific discovery and the generation of new knowledge. However, because most literature does not consider serendipitous information encounters to be typically goal-oriented, research on the use of serendipity as a recognized method of information acquisition is lacking.  Building upon a review of current literature, this paper posits that the deep knowledge work and the strong social networks inherent in knowledge building environments would provide the ideal platform for fostering serendipitous insights. It is further suggested that tools to deliver potentially serendipitous content would be of value to knowledge building activities by encouraging active and creative connections to content, identifying and overcoming knowledge-gaps during moments of idleness, as well as making users more perceptive to future information encounters.  Possibilities for the integration of such tools into existing knowledge building environments are then presented.

PAPER (3042): Knowledge Building in the Open: Constructing a Knowledge Building Experience on the Web. Alexander McAuley. University of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Knowledge building has been demonstrating significant potential to enhance K-12 education since it was first conceptualized by Scardamalia and Bereiter in the late 1980s. Similarly, the iterations of Knowledge Forum software and its predecessor CSILE have demonstrated equal successes in supporting knowledge building pedagogy in K-12 classrooms since the early 1990s. Despite the fact that many of the successes of knowledge building and Knowledge Forum have taken place in Canada, larger scale and longer term implementations appear to have taken deeper root elsewhere. In addition, the explosive growth of the Internet in general and collaborative Web 2.0 applications in particular over the past five to ten years have contributed to a massive global networked culture in which sharing and collaborating online is the norm. The intersection of this new, networked culture and education would seem to create new possibilities for knowledge building as an educational practice at the same time as it calls into question the closed Òwalled gardenÓ of a Knowledge Forum database.

Based on an intense one-year (2007-2008) project entitled A Living Archives in which junior high school students on Prince Edward Island researched and created an online gloss for historical references from L. M. MontgomeryÕs Anne of Green Gables, this paper will describe the extent to which knowledge building principles informed both the pedagogy underlying the project and the Drupal-based software environment developed to support it. It will then outline some tentative lessons, some Òimprovable ideasÓ that the knowledge-building community may wish to think about.

WORKSHOP/Interactive Session - (3040): Faculty Adaptations of Open Educational Resource as a Collaborative Knowledge Building Space. Tom Carey, San Diego State University, USA.

Summary: As open educational resources gain more credibility and acceptance in higher education, the need to encourage, support and manage faculty adaptations grows in importance. Faculty adapt open educational resources at several levels, from revisions to accommodate local logistics – e.g., a class schedule of two 1.5 hour session per week versus three 1 hour sessions – through addition of new learning activities that address gaps in student preparation up to significant shifts in pedagogical design.

Current representations for adaptations of open resources use a model of information artifacts in a document repository, which limits collaborative knowledge building and collective responsibility for knowledge creation and mobilization. We propose instead a new representation modeled as a collective space for pedagogical content knowledge, so that collaborative knowledge building is embedded in the processes of OER creation and adaptation, along with support to leverage the shared knowledge base to scale up and sustain teacher professional development in distributed innovation networks.

Overview of Demonstration Materials: The demonstration materials will present two preliminary case studies of faculty adaptations of open educational resources, represented in Knowledge Forum as a collaborative space for building, adapting and mobilizing pedagogical content knowledge for college mathematics teachers:

á   the Collaborative Statistics open textbook and course resources, initially created by Barbara Illowsky & Susan Dean at De Anza Community College, http://cnx.org/content/col10522/latest/ . This course now has 60 recorded users and 25 recorded adaptations, http://cnx.org/content/m18261/latest/.

á   The Path2Stats Algebra course developed by Myra Snell and colleagues at Los Medanos College. This course was adapted by 7 colleges in 2011, and 7 new colleges are beginning adaptations in 2012, in the Acceleration Project of the California Community Colleges Success Network, http://cap.3csn.org.

We will discuss the in-progress work of testing these representations with current and future faculty adaptors of these open educational resources, and the professional, social and technical infrastructures required to support faculty adaptations of open resources to foster collaborative knowledge building and a professional identity for college teachers as members of a collaborative knowledge profession.


POSTER (3041): Liberal Education as an Apprenticeship in Collaborative Knowledge Work and Innovation. Tom Carey, San Diego State University, USA.

Liberal education at the undergraduate level has traditionally been framed as Òenabling students to make sense of the world and their place in it, to prepare them to use knowledge and skills as means toward responsible engagement with the life of their timesÓ. These aims are increasingly challenged by public perceptions of higher education as an instrumental investment in career development for students and society. Yet the demands of a modern knowledge society require more than mastery of specific areas for career development: graduates must be ready to engage with integrative and creative thinking in emerging knowledge-rich domains, and to resolve seemingly conflicting perspectives in their work, their communities, and a larger global context.

This poster reports on new work-in-progress to frame liberal education as preparing graduates for collaborative knowledge work and innovation in emerging career opportunities, as well as in their lives as community members and global citizens. In particular, the poster outlines potential experiential learning opportunities for students to develop and document their capability in adding value for their institutions of higher education, through collaborative knowledge building and innovation. The intent is for graduates to have the understanding and the specific accomplishments to demonstrate the value they can bring to their workplaces and communities.

At the heart of such an education is an apprenticeship model for undergraduate learning, which requires faculty commitment to collaborative knowledge building and innovation to provide a pedagogical model based on Teaching by Example. In the words of Parker Palmer: ÒHow we teach is part of what we teach. The methods we use to help our students learn are a key part of what they learn.Ó The key idea is to make faculty knowledge building and knowledge mobilization for teaching more valuable and strategic, by opening up the process as a model and inspiration in developing student capabilities for collaborative knowledge building and innovation. 

The goal of the poster session is to invite comment, ideas and potential collaboration from higher education faculty and other Ôcritical friendsÕ. The poster describes several such scenarios – e.g., as in the OER adaptations described in a related Summer Institute workshop session – taken from current faculty engagement in collaborative knowledge building and knowledge exchange networks, and outlines how students could share in the process to provide an apprenticeship in collaborative knowledge building and innovation. We will also discuss the initial pilot study with a teaching-led university, focusing on engaging faculty in collective development of pedagogical content knowledge as a precursor and demo for their students of networked learning in a professional context.

WORKSHOP/Interactive Session (3050): SENSƒƒR: Le modle de l'Žcole ŽloignŽe en rŽseau et les communautŽs francophones du Canada / The Quebec Remote Networked School model and Francophone communities across provinces. Christine Hamel, Pier-Ann Boutin, Christian Perreault, ThŽrse Laferrire, UniversitŽ Laval; Rollande Deslandes, UniversitŽ du QuŽbec ˆ Trois-Rivires, Canada.

Notre activitŽ de diffusion est de sensibiliser les enseignants et les parents de quatre rŽgions canadiennes diffŽrentes aux possibilitŽs des environnements dÕapprentissage en rŽseau, de les instrumenter dans la mise sur pied de tels environnements et de recueillir des donnŽes hors QuŽbec quant au rŽseautage des classes et des Žcoles ˆ des fins de gouvernance, dÕadministration, dÕenseignement et dÕapprentissage. La dispersion dŽmographique des communautŽs francophones au Canada est la principale raison de la pertinence de notre activitŽ. Cette dernire est informŽe des rŽsultats dÕune recherche rŽalisŽe en partenariat universitŽ-milieu scolaire au QuŽbec, soit lՃcole ŽloignŽe en rŽseau (ƒƒR, 2002-2012), sous la coordination du CEFRIO, un organisme oeuvrant ˆ lÕinnovation par les nouvelles technologies au QuŽbec et mandataire du ministre de lՃducation, du Loisir et du Sport du QuŽbec pour la rŽalisation du projet. Dans le cadre dՃƒR, des enseignants et des Žlves dՎcoles rurales provenant dÕune vingtaine de commissions scolaires (CS) du QuŽbec ont utilisŽ des outils de tŽlŽcollaboration pour enrichir leur environnement dÕapprentissage (Laferrire et al, 2009, 2010). Ils se sont penchŽs entre autres sur des problmes en lien avec le dŽveloppement durable et dont les domaines dÕapprentissage sont aussi diversifiŽs que la science et technologie, lÕunivers social, lՎthique et culture religieuse. Les trois principales technologies de tŽlŽcollaboration utilisŽes ont ŽtŽ iVisit et VIA, des systmes de vidŽoconfŽrence accessibles du lieu mme de la salle de classe, et le Ç Knowledge Forum È, traduit en franais par lÕexpression Forum de coŽlaboration de connaissances (FCC). La combinaison des outils a fourni de nouvelles situations dÕapprentissage stimulantes aux Žlves et conduit ˆ des rŽsultats probants au regard des capacitŽs dÕinvestigation, dÕexplication et de communication des Žlves. Pour les jeunes canadiens, apprendre ˆ approfondir avec dÕautres des questions complexes en utilisant Internet pour accŽder ˆ de lÕinformation, partager des donnŽes (locales) et en comprendre le sens tout en cherchant ˆ amŽliorer les idŽes qui naissent sur le chemin de leur interprŽtation devient nŽcessaire ˆ lՏre o changent les rgles menant au leadership et ˆ la prospŽritŽ dans la sociŽtŽ dite Ç du savoir È. Le programme de recherche auquel puise cette activitŽ a donc mis en Žvidence que la coŽlaboration de connaissances (knowledge building) mobilise un groupe dՎlves ˆ repousser sa comprŽhension dÕune question ou dÕun problme (Allaire et al, 2006, 2011; Laferrire et al, 2011). Les deux outils de tŽlŽcollaboration ont transformŽ la classe ƒƒR en un environnement dÕapprentissage en rŽseau par la combinaison dՎchanges Žcrits et verbaux, internes ˆ une classe et interclasses, rattachŽes ˆ une mme CS ou ˆ un systme Žducatif dÕailleurs. Des pratiques pŽdagogiques et collaboratives ont ŽtŽ repŽrŽes comme cruciales pour la mise en Ïuvre dÕun tel discours progressif au sein de la classe. Des pratiques administratives et collaboratives, entre autres, le lien Žcole-famille-communautŽ, se sont aussi avŽrŽes nŽcessaires. La prŽsente activitŽ de diffusion fera conna”tre les pratiques repŽrŽes, instrumentera les professionnels et les parents de quatre rŽgions intŽressŽes et fournira des donnŽes de recherche en matire de dŽploiement de cette innovation ˆ travers le Canada.

WORKSHOP (3051) How do we build a common foundation of understanding in order to tackle the complex, interrelated challenges of the 21st century in a coherent and effective way? Blake Melnick, Knowledge Management Institute of Canada (KMIC), Canada.

Over the past 3 years the Knowledge Management Institute of Canada (KMIC) has been working with cross sector organizations and industries to help them make the shift from information age to knowledge age.

Through two industry studies, a number of large scale consulting assignments, organizational rescues and a series of education initiatives we have discovered the challenges facing all organizations today, regardless of Industry sector, are virtually the same:

á     Inadequacy of workplace cultures to support sustainable Innovation

á     Pending loss of knowledge unique to organizations as a result of attrition

á     Effectively Identifying, capturing and transferring know how from retiring experts to support the onboarding an the time to competency of new hires

á     Life long learning: Identifying new skills / competencies / knowledge requirements and providing the means to deliver just in time, on the job training and learning in support of performance objectives.

á     Defining the characteristics of the new workforce

á     Declining productivity as a result of information overload

The presentation / workshop will address key findings from recent KMIC research studies related to the barriers to innovation, the impact of knowledge loss, the critical success factors involved in creating a knowledge centric organization culture. As well, participants will gain an understanding of the key foundational principles and strategies for achieving widespread support for the knowledge imperative and buy-in for the organizational change process.

POSTER (3052) – Automated Assessment for Knowledge Creation: An Overview of Possibilities. Bodong Chen, Jing Fu, & Marlene Scardamalia, University of Toronto, OISE, Canada.

In this poster we review a body of literature relevant to automated assessment of knowledge building. Embedded and transformative assessment plays an important role in knowledge building (Scardamalia, 2002) by allowing teachers and students to identify advances and problems of understanding as work proceeds, thereby turning greater agency over to participants and engaging them in self assessment of their knowledge advances and innovations (e.g. Lee, Chan, & Aalst, 2006; van Aalst & Chan, 2007). Assessment to help guide knowledge building is usually powered by technical tools, with focus on knowledge-building discourse in Knowledge Forum (Burtis, 1998; Oshima, Oshima, & Matsuzawa, 2012; Teplovs, Donoahue, Scardamalia, & Philip, 2007; van Aalst, Chan, et al., 2012). The rise of learning analytics as a field of research brings together a substantial base of techniques for analysing discourse to inform the design and implementation of next-generation assessments for knowledge creation (Siemens, 2012). Efforts to identify automated assessments to facilitate knowledge creation make use of text mining, semantic analysis, social network analysis, predictive modeling, natural language processing, and information visualization—all used creatively and interchangeably to generate new possibilities for automated assessments. Assessments for knowledge creation can then be used by students as well as their teachers to guide their knowledge work.

POSTER (3053) – Partnering for Professional Development. Susana La Rosa, University of Toronto, IKIT, Canada; Mireia MontanŽ, Centre de Programes Educatius Internacionals, Catalunya, Spain; Chriss Bogert, Lorraine Chiarotto, Julie Comay, Andrea Cousineau, Zoe Donoahue, Cindy Halewood, Judith Kimel, Norah LÕEsperance, Michael Martins, Richard Messina, Elizabeth Morley, Julia Murray, Ben Peebles, Robin Shaw, Carol Stephenson, Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study –ICS, Canada.

In this session we demonstrate an early release version of a new professional development site to support practitioners and to create peer-to-peer systems of support for all knowledge builders. The envisioned site and user network will allow users to record their inventions online, thus creating an open educational resource for teachers, knowledge workers, researchers, policy makers, and designers to draw upon and to support communities linking with other communities and helping each other. The network will foster collaboration between sites and support professional development. Research teams will additionally provide research results and commentary to help users judge whether reported knowledge practices actually foster knowledge creation and lead to knowledge advances.

URL: http://ikit.org/kb_examples/

WORKSHOP (3054) IDEAS/IDƒES - Idea Development, Engagement, Educational Achievement, and Systemic Change. ThŽrse Laferrire, Laval University, Canada.

IDEAS (Idea Development, Engagement, Educational Achievement, and Systemic Change) is a research and development partnership dedicated to education focused on "sustained creative engagement with ideas." Governments everywhere are recognizing the need to increase innovative capacity. In the past, schools could be relied upon to educate an elite destined to do society's high-level knowledge work. Today, more such achievers are needed for the growth of Canada's knowledge economy, but international assessments show a decline at the upper levels of educational achievement, and only 37% of adolescents indicate they are intellectually engaged with school learning. Sustained work with ideas is a critical factor for growth but there is concern that new media may be fostering the opposite: distractibility and low persistence in intellectual effort. Our research partnership will pursue the design of engaging classroom environments that promote deep intellectual engagement, sustained creative work with ideas, and the renewal of teachers' and students' rapport au savoir (relationship to knowledge) through a social innovation framework and strategy for systemic change.
Six objectives of IDƒES/IDEAS are: (1) to promote deep intellectual engagement; (2) to facilitate sustained work with ideas; (3) to improve teachers' and students' rapport au savoir in information- and communication-rich (or poor) classroom environments; (4) to link schools as full partners in collaborative interdisciplinary efforts to advance knowledge relevant to educational innovation; (5) to support systemic change aimed at social innovation at the school level; and (6) to achieve sustainability and scalability of innovations that upgrade the quality of learning.

This workshop is meant to be interactive as we delineate the next steps for this project to become reality.  

PAPER (3055) Three stages of Knowledge Building in Grade 3 of a Chinese School: A Case Study of Water Around Us. Yibing Zhang, Nanjing Normal University, Yanqin Zhu, Nanjing Elementary School of Baiyunyuan, China.

From Sept of 2011 to June of 2012 students conducted research on the topic of "water". The work consisted of three stages. In the first stage, corresponding to a month of work, students researched the "dissolve phenomenon."  This seemed too narrow, and the grade 3 students found it difficult to continue the research. The second month the instructional strategy was changed. Students were encouraged to research topics based on curriculum standards:  the three states of water, water and us, water distribution, and water pollution. While students explored these topics there was no evidence that they deepened their knowledge.

The university-based research team discussed challenges and implemented the third stage which was "the water pollution in LIwei river" which is a river beside the lab school. Students then continued their research and improved their knowledge.

This case study helped the researcher-teacher teams deepen their own understanding of how to include textbook resources and curriculum standards, how to motivate grade 3 students to engage in increasingly deep understanding, and how to engage a classroom teacher in new knowledge practices based on a deeper understanding of Knowledge Building.

POSTER (3056)Knowledge Building in Mathematics: Knowledge Building Principles Complement the NCTM Principles. Susan M. Carlson-Lishman, University of Toronto, OISE, Canada.

TodayÕs world is rapidly changing and increasingly technological. To be successful in this world, students need to learn with understanding and to be flexible, creative, and adaptive. As new knowledge, technology, and ways of doing things emerge, students will need to apply what they know in new ways to solve the new kinds of problems that emerge. I will compare two sets of principles—Knowledge Building (KB) principles and the NCTM principles—that are advocated to help prepare students for the knowledge age. Using examples, I will show that these two sets of principles are complementary.  

POSTER (3057) – Young Students' Abilities to Improve Ideas. Nyambura Kariuki, Thornwood Public School. Peel District School Board; Monica Resendes and Bodong Chen, IKIT, University of Toronto, Canada.

How can teachers support young children in the use of media to generate and improve ideas? This study examines the capacities of Junior and Senior Kindergarten children to engage in Knowledge Building about Habitats, with the support of a collaborative presentation technology called Voice Thread.  During this unit, students participated in a variety of activities, including Knowledge Building talks, nature walks, and art projects, that enabled them to develop skills in literacy, communication, and idea exchange. Through this initial, exploratory research, it is observable that if the young students can master co-operative, verbal and writing skills early, they can begin to engage in Knowledge Building at a technological level.  Although a surplus amount of groundwork has to be established in the areas of trust, reciprocity, shared responsibility and commitment to the process, programmes like Voice Thread present a useful and accessible support for engaging young children in Knowledge Building. 

POSTER (3058) - Outils d'analyse de vocabulaire franais. Francophone Vocabulary Analyzing Tools. StŽphane Allaire, Marie-Desneiges Hamel, Pier-Ann Boutin, and Christian Perreault, UniversitŽ Laval, Canada.

Ce poster prend la forme dÕune courte dŽmonstration sur Žcran numŽrique des outils dÕanalyse de vocabulaire dŽveloppŽs en langue franaise et adaptŽs, entre autres, au programme de lՎcole quŽbŽcoise.

This poster is in a digital format, and introduces to the analytical tools developed to satisfy the particularities of the French language. Some of them reflect the requirements of the Quebec school curriculum.

INTERACTIVE SESSION (3059) – Open Learning Initiative and Knowledge Building: The Promise. Candace Thille, & John Rinderle, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.

The goal of this OLnet project is to support individual learning and group knowledge building. The Open Learning Initiative (OLI) at Carnegie Mellon University provides open access to courses that are the complete "enactment of instruction." OLI courses are designed to support both classroom and independent learners to learn a subject at the introductory college level. A learner in an OLI course works independently, supported by frequent opportunities for practice and guided by targeted hints and feedback. In this presentation we discuss goals for integration of OLI and collaborative knowledge building. Knowledge Building calls for community discourse to advance knowledge on shared problems of understanding, and engages learners in raising questions, sharing ideas, and engaging in collaborative problem solving as they progress through the OLI course-- treating the course material as an authoritative source and also an object of inquiry.  We are exploring models for knowledge building discourse, latent semantic analysis, and social network analysis to provide feedback to students, instructors, and course designers to influence desired learning outcomes and knowledge innovations.

INTERACTIVE SESSION (3060) – Knowledge Forum Rebuild. Alisa Acosta, Bodong Chen, Monica Resendes, OISE/University of Toronto; Raphael Gachuhi, Carnegie Mellon University; Christian Perreault, UniversitŽ Laval, Canada.

In this session we demonstrate an early release version of new open source Knowledge Forum and discuss designs to be available for beta release early in the new year.  This presentation will propose transition strategies from the old version to the new version, discuss next-generation designs and priority developments, and describe a

framework for the international development team to advance the basic environment and suite of analytic tools.

INTERACTIVE SESSION (3061) – Open Educational Resource Collections as Knowledge Building Spaces for Faculty. Tom Carey, San Diego State University, California, USA.

As open educational resources gain more credibility and acceptance in higher education, resource repositories are transitioning from a library paradigm toward community models. We are investigating how our current technologies for knowledge creation can be augmented to encourage and support knowledge building in faculty communities. These faculty communities differ in important ways from the collaborative knowledge building environments in which our current tools have evolved: faculty interactions are more frequently cooperative than collaborative and are extended over time, the collective activities yield a body of adaptable Ôhow toÕ knowledge rather than a conclusive argument or theory, and the desired outcome is use and adaptation of the resource base in parallel with mobilization and extension of the knowledge base. A follow-on workshop at the Summer Institute will further explore these issues, with examples from two usage communities of community college mathematics faculty.



[1] ÒFCLÓ refers to the Fostering Communities of Learners model developed by Ann Brown and Joseph Campione and their colleagues (Brown, 1992; Brown & Campione, 1994, 1996).

[2] In QuŽbec, college comes right after high school, where students spend two years if they wish to go on to university or three years if they choose a technical program.